Rural and charming, Schafferstown and surrounding Heidelberg Township in Lebanon County have preserved many of their earliest historic qualities. German immigrant Alexander Schaeffer laid out the village with a central square and built a water system around 1758 using underground wooden pipes to connect a spring-fed reservoir to two troughs on Market Street and the town square. It is one of the oldest public waterworks in the United States. Because the area was left isolated from rail lines, canals, and modern highways, the town did not grow appreciably in the 19th or 20th centuries. This greatly influenced the small-town look and feel that the area maintains today. Schafferstown retains many early log, stone, and even a few half-timbered houses as well as the original town layout. Today, it is the largest village in Heidelberg Township, which also includes Kleinfeltersville, Reistville, and Buffalo Springs.